Yangiliklar Ibodullayev ensiklopediyasi Simpatik nerv sistemasi

Simpatik nerv sistemasi


Yuqorida qayd qilinganidek, simpatik nerv sistemasining markaziy va periferik qismlari farq qilinadi. Simpatik nerv sistemasining markaziy qismi C8, Th1-Th12, L1-L2 spinal segmentlarning yon shoxlarida joylashgan. Bularning barchasi birgalikda simpatik markaz yoki torakolyumbal sistema deb aytiladi.
Simpatik nerv sistemasining periferik qismi chap va o‘ng tomondagi simpatik poya (truncus sympathicus), undan chiquvchi nervlar, ichki a’zolar yonida va ichida yotgan simpatik tugunlardan iborat. Har bir simpatik poya vegetativ tugunlardan (ganglia trunci sympathici) tashkil topgan bo‘lib, ular tugunlararo tarmoqlar (rr. interganglionares)  bilan o‘zaro bog‘langan.
Simpatik poyalar umurtqa pog‘onasining ikkala yon tomoni, ya’ni paravertebral yo‘nalish bo‘ylab joylashgan. Bir-biriga simmetrik ravishda joylashgan simpatik poyalarning ustki qismi birinchi bo‘yin umurtqasi (atlas), pastki qismi dum suyagi (os coccygis) sohasiga to‘g‘ri keladi.
Har bir simpatik poya quyidagi 4 qismdan iborat:
  1. bo‘yin – 3 ta tugun (ganglia cervicalia);
  2. ko‘krak – 9-12 ta tugun (ganglia thoracica);
  3. bel – 4-5 ta tugun (ganglia lumbalia);
  4. dumg‘aza – 4 ta tugun (ganglia sacralia).
Chap va o‘ng tomondagi simpatik poyaning eng pastki qismi tos ichida o‘zaro birlashib toq tugunni (ganglion impar) hosil qiladi. Ganglion impar topografiyasi dum suyagi oldiga to‘g‘ri keladi.
Ko‘zning simpatik innervatsiyasi. Ko‘zning simpatik innervatsiyasi S8-Th1 spinal segmentlarning yon shoxlari bilan bog‘liq. Bunga tsiliospinal markaz deyiladi.
Ushbu markazda 1 neyron tanasi yotadi. Ularning aksonlari yuqori bo‘yin tugunida (ganglion cervicale superius) to‘xtaydi. Unda 2 neyron tanasi yotadi. Uning postganglionar tolalari ko‘z kosasi ichiga kirib ganglion ciliare orqali to‘xtamasdan o‘tib, qorachiqni kengaytiruvchi muskulga (m. dilatator pupillae) boradi.
Simptomlari. Ko‘zni innervatsiya qiluvchi simpatik yadro va yo‘llar zararlansa, Klod Bernar-Gorner sindromi rivojlanadi. Uning simptomlari quyidagilar: 1) m. dilatator pupillae falajlanishi hisobiga mioz; 2) m. tarsalis superior zararlanishi hisobiga ko‘z yorig‘i torayishi (ptoz); 3) m. orbitalis falajlanishi hisobiga ko‘z olmasi o‘tirishi (cho‘kishi) enoftalm.


Manba: © Z. Ibodullayev. Umumiy nevrologiya. Darslik. Toshkent, 2021., 312 b. 
             © Ibodullayev ensiklopediyasi
             © asab.cc

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